FAMILIA RECEPTOR INTERLEUQUINA-1

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La interleuquina 1 (IL-1) o interleucina 1 es una citoquina crucial en el sistema inmunológico y desempeña un papel central en la respuesta inflamatoria del organismo. Es una proteína de señalización celular, que regula diversas respuestas inmunológicas y proinflamatorias en el organismo, realizan dicha función uniéndose a receptores primarios del tipo: IL-1 RI/IL-1 R1, IL-18 R alfa/IL-1 R5, IL-1 Rrp2/IL-1 R6, o ST2/IL-1 R4, para posteriormente mediante un receptor accesorio (co-receptor) formar complejos de receptor activos La interleuquina 1 es producida por distintos tipos de células, especialmente por macrófagos activados, pero también por monocitos y células dendríticas. Se produce en grandes cantidades como respuesta a infecciones, lesiones o estrés Se trata de un mediador clave en la respuesta inflamatoria provocando fiebre, aumento de los neutrófilos circulantes y la producción de proteínas de fase aguda. Codificada en el cromosoma 2, históricamente fue una de las primeras citoquinas descubiertas

LIBERACION DE IL-1

La Interleukina-1 es liberada como respuesta al TNFα. Se conocen tres formas:

  • La IL-1α principalmente intracelular.
  • La IL-1β que, secretada a la circulación, interacciona con dos tipos de receptores de Tipo I (en la mayoría de las células), y de Tipo II (en linfocitos B, neutrófilos, monocitos y células de la médula ósea)
  • La IL-1RA inhibe la unión de las dos primeras a sus receptores.

Funciones principales de la IL-1

  • Efectos proinflamatorios debidos a la liberación de histamina por los mastocitos, provocando vasodilatación e inflamación localizada.
  • Tiene actividad quimiotáctica sobre los granulocitos.
  • Tiene acividad pirogénica mediante la liberación de prostaglandinas.
  • Aumenta, junto al TNFα i la IL-6, las proteínas de fase aguda como el fibrinógeno y la PCR.
  • A nivel del SNC aumenta el sueño y la anorexia en procesos infecciosos (efecto del óxido nítrico).
  • Aumenta la liberación de hormonas hipofisarias.
  • Aumenta el número de células precursoras en la médula ósea.
  • Aumenta la expresión de los genes que la producen, y también de los que producen prostaglandinas, leucotrienos, IL-8 y algunos protooncogenes

RECEPTORES IL-1

Los receptores de la Interleuquina 1 se han descrito en casi todos los tejidos del organismo. En sangre periférica se describieron dos tipos básicos.

  • El tipo I (80 KD) que se expresa característicamente en los linfocitos T, aunque también está presente en muchos otros tipos celulares.
  • El Tipo II (68 KD) se expresa característicamente en Linfocitos B.

La principal diferencia estructural entre ambos receptores se encuentra en la porción citoplasmática del receptor, que es más pequeña en el tipo II (29 aminoácidos, frente a 231 en el tipo I) Ambos receptores son codificados por genes distintos, y presentan sólo un 28% de homología en los aminoácidos de la porción extracelular del receptor, a pesar de lo cual ambos tienen afinidad por la IL-1α, la IL-1β y IL-Ira

Clasificación

FAMILIAALIAS
IL-1 RIIL-1 R Type 1IL1R1,CD121a, IL1 RI
IL-1 RIIIL-1 R Type 2IL1R2,CD121d. IL1 RII
IL-1 RAcP/IL-1 R3Interleukin 1 Receptor Accessory ProteinC3orf13, IL-1R-3, IL-1R3, IL-1RAcP,IL1RAP
IL-18 R alpha/IL-1 R5IL-18 R alphaL18R1, CD218a, CDw218a,IL-18Ralpha,IL-18 R alpha,IL-1 R5,IL-18RA,IL18RA
IL-18 R beta/IL-1 R7IL-18 R betaIL18RAP, ACPL, CD218b, CDw218b, IL-18R-beta, IL-18Rbeta, IL18RB, IL-1 R7,IL1R7
IL-1Rrp2/IL-1R6Interleukin-1 receptor-like 2IL1RL2, IL-1Rrp2, IL-36R, IL1R-rp2, IL1RRP2, IL-1R6
IL1RAPL1Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein-like 1IL1RAPL1,IL1R8, IL1RAPL, IL-1RAPL-1, IL-1-RAPL-1, IL1RAPL-1
IL1RAPL2Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein-like 2IL1RAPL2,IL-1R9, IL1R9, IL1RAPL-2, TIGIRR-1
SIGIRRSingle Ig IL-1-related receptorSIGIRR, TIR8, IL-1R8,SIGIRR, TIR8, IL-1R8
TMED1Transmembrane emp24 domain-containingTMED1,IL1RL1LG,IL1RL1L,Tp24; p24g1
ST2/IL-33RST2IL1RL1, DER4, FIT-1, IL33R, ST2, ST2L, ST2V

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